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Book S2: Fluency in Functional English (Part - II)

Fluency in Functional English (Part - II)

Fluency in Functional English (Part - II)
By Prof. Kev Nair

"Two volumes of Fluency in Functional English help speakers achieve the skill of being able to say the right thing in the right social and career contexts."
The New Indian Express.

Please note: This book is not sold separately. It is available for sale only as part of Fluentzy: The English Fluency Encyclopedia.

Sample pages from this book

Fluency in Functional English

How have you got on with the practice of the functional word groups in Supplement 1?

Let me stress one thing once again. In actual life, nobody ever speaks by first recalling the name of the communicative function they have to perform in a particular context and then by deciding on a word group that would help them perform that function. No. Nobody ever does that. What people actually do is to rely on their feelings for what’s appropriate in a particular context. Yes, they just utter what they feel is appropriate.

And the practice you do with the functional word groups would help you develop this sense of appropriateness in everyday situations.

We’ve already seen one thing in Supplement 1: The word groups under the various function-headings show you how you can “do things” in English. But that’s not the only benefit you get out of the practice you do with the function word groups. For one thing, this practice adds to your skill in handling some of the most useful of the core words in English. For another, it adds to your flexibility in handling some of the most common grammatical patterns. And of course, it trains your organs of speech to handle everyday English speech.

So continue doing your practice with the function word groups with all seriousness and sincerity. We looked at as many as 62 communicative functions in Supplement 1. We’ll now take up the remaining functions in this Supplement. Just as you’ve done with the function word groups in Supplement 1, practise uttering the word groups in this Supplement, too — several times, ALOUD. Go through the instructions given in the introductory part of Supplement 1 once again — and follow those instructions.

Remember this: The purpose in uttering the word groups several times — that too, ALOUD — is this: That’s the quickest and easiest way you can train your organs of speech and ears to get used to these word groups. And so long as your organs of speech and ears don’t get used to these word groups, you won’t be able to produce those word groups (or similar word groups) easily in actual conversations! So keep uttering the word groups ALOUD, until they come out of your mouth smoothly and continuously — without hesitation.

When you go through the various function-headings given below, you’ll come across two abbreviations: ‘sb’ and ‘sth’. The abbreviation ‘sb’ stands for ‘somebody’, and the abbreviation ‘sth’ stands for ‘something’. And now, here we go for the function word groups:

63. Responding to greetings from sb you already know

Take a look at these everyday greetings:

• “How are you?”
• “How’s things?”
• “How’s everything?”
• “How’s it going?”

Structurally, they’re all questions. But they’re all greetings, too. In fact, pragmatically, a question like this is more a greeting than a question. Yes, it’s a greeting in the first place, and a question only in the second place. Normally, it’s from someone you already know, rather than from a person you meet for the first time, that you get a greeting of this kind.

The most common responses to these greetings are:

“Fine, thanks. And how are/about you?”
“Very well, thanks. And how are/about you?”

You can answer other greetings like ‘Hi’, ‘Hello’, etc. with a return ‘Hi’ or ‘Hello’ — or with one of the other greetings given at Sl. no. 62 (Greeting people you already know). Or you can use a combination of a ‘Hi’ (or ‘Hello’) and one of the other greetings given there. For example, you can say:

“Hi, what a nice surprise!”
“Hello, Alfredo! Fancy meeting you here!”

64. Greeting sb you’ve just met for the first time

(See Sl. no. 82 Introducing people and responding to introductions.)

65. Sending greetings through sb to sb else

• Please give my regards to your father, will you? • Don’t forget to remember me to Ashok. • Say hello to Rekha. • Give my best wishes to your mother. • Give my love to the children. • Give my regards to Julia. • Please remember me to Sumitra.

66. Offering help

• Can I help you? • Can I give you any help? • Do you need any help? • Is there anything I can do to help? • Why don’t you let me help you with the cooking? • I’ll do it, shall I? • Maybe, I could help you do it. • I’m going to the post office. Would you like me to get anything for you? • Can I help? • Everything all right? • I’ll help you. • I’ll ring for the office boy. • Want me to try? • Please let me help you. • Can I help you with it? • Do you want me to help with the washing-up? • Can I be of any help? • Do you need some kind of help? • Allow me to do it for you. • It’s cold in here. Would you like me to shut the windows? • I’ll do it for you. • Is there anything else? • Perhaps I could be of some help? • Would you like me to try? • I’ll be glad to help, if you need it. • Do you want me to have a look? • If you like, I’ll phone him up. • Let me carry your bag. • I suppose you want something else, do you? • Shall I see if I can help you? • I can help, if you like. • If you like, I’ll help you with your work. • Let’s have a look. • Could I give you a hand to complete it? • Here, I’ll show you how to do it. • Permit me to help you. • Can I help you with anything? • Well, if you have any more trouble, just let me know. • It looks heavy. Could I give you a hand with it? • You seem to be having some problem. • What’s wrong? • I haven’t got much, but you can borrow what money I have. • Perhaps I could help you do it. • Let me help you. • I’ll help you, if you like.

67. Accepting help

• Oh, that’s very kind/thoughtful of you. • Could you? • You’re most kind. • Yes, please. I’d appreciate it. • Oh, could you do that? That’d be very helpful. • That’d be lovely/great. • I’d be delighted if you could. • Would you? • That’s extremely good of you. • I’d appreciate it if you could. • If you’re sure it’s no trouble for you... • I’d be glad if you could. • Thanks. That’d be a great help. • Thanks very much. • I’d be glad if you would.

68. Declining help

• No, thank you. • Don’t bother. • No, please don’t bother — I can manage. • Don’t worry. • That’s very kind of you. • Thank you, but I can manage. • I’d rather do it myself, thank you. • No, thanks. I’m fine. • That’s OK, thanks. • I’d better do it myself, thank you. • I’m all right, thank you.

69. Asking for help

(See Sl. no. 148 Requesting others to help you or to do sth or to give you sth).

70. Expressing hope

• I just hope she’ll be able to come. • I was hoping for something different this time. • We hope to go there next month. • I hope so. • I think you’ll like our food. • I very much hope they’d realize its importance. • I hope we can make them feel welcome. • I only hope he’ll be able to help them out. • Hopefully, he’ll bring it with him. • I hope to see her soon. • I hope you haven’t paid for it. • I hope he’ll do it. • Let’s hope he’ll get better soon. • I’m rather hoping the weather’ll be good.

71. Identifying sb or sth

• It could be Anitha. • That’s her, isn’t it? • This is the bag he had with him. • Maybe, it’s that contractor. • It’s me. • It’s us. • It’s them. • That’s her. • It’s him. • She’s here. • It could be a Honda. • Yes, it is. • There’s a big mole on his right cheek. • That girl on his left is his younger sister. • I think that’s her husband. • It’s Ashok Malhotra from next door. • I suppose that must be him. • It’s a very good book. • She’s got a wart on her nose. • I know the man she’s standing beside. • That’s him, your friend. • Ah, there’s the man I told you about. • I think he’s an electrician or something. • I think it’s a Rolls Royce . • Yes, she is. • It’s your father on the phone. • He has a slight limp. • These are his clothes. • I think that’s the one. • I am a client of his. • Yes, it’s her all right. • This is the book you wanted, isn’t it? • He has a scar on his forehead. • Perhaps it’s a Honda. • Well, there he is. • He’s a mechanic.

72. Asking about identity

• Who are you? • May I know who you are? • Are you Mr. Iyengar? • Who’s that man over there? • What make of TV is it? • Is that you, Asha? • Who did you see at the bank? • What the hell is that? • Which Sharma do you mean — his brother-in-law or his neighbour? • See that man? Who’s he? • What sort of book is it ? • Do you know who she is? • Who’re those people? • What in the world is it? • Are you policemen? • Who are you phoning? • Excuse me. Are you the teacher of VIII A? • What colour is it? • Who on earth told you that? • What’s the name of that girl? • That man standing over there. Do you know him? • See that thing there? What is it? • Isn’t that your father? • Do you recognize that man in a blue shirt? • Do you know what that thing is? • Who are you going to meet? • What on earth is that thing in your bag? • Do you have some identification with you? • Do you know what that woman is? • Isn’t that your bag? • What kind of typewriter is it? An electronic one? • That’s your uncle, isn’t it? • Who is that packet for? • Which of these bags is yours? • What make is your car? • Who’s he talking to? • What type of oil do you use?

73. Not identifying

• I don’t recognize him. • I’m afraid I’ve no idea. • I don’t know who it was. • I know his face, but I can’t place him. • I’ve no idea what it is. • There’s some man at the door. • Sorry. I don’t know. • I only saw his back. • I’m not certain. • There’s something on the floor. • He just reminds me of someone. • But I can’t put a name to his face. • I haven’t the faintest idea. • I have no idea who that is. • I have no idea what his name is. • No. I don’t think so. • I haven’t a clue. • This isn’t mine. It must be somebody else’s. • God knows. • I’m not sure.

74. Imagining a situation

(See Sl. no. 154 Speculating about things).

75. Expressing indecision

(See also Sl. no. 34 Expressing uncertainty and Sl. no. 56 Expressing doubt)

• Look, I don’t know what to do. • I can’t decide whether to invite him or not. • Oh, I don’t know. • Maybe I shouldn’t do it. • Perhaps I should write to his deputy first. • I’m in two minds whether or not to do it. • I don’t know what to tell them. • Yes, I suppose so. • I’ll possibly be able to do it. • Maybe I’ll buy it, maybe I won’t. • I’m a bit uncertain about this. • Well, of course. • It’s up to you. • I’m not sure. • He’s possibly one of our best workers. • Well, maybe. • I’m not sure what to do next. • I don’t know whether to accept it or not.

76. Expressing indifference

• It makes no difference to me. • It makes no difference. • Do what you like. I don’t care. • I suppose so. • How should I know? • It’s all the same to me. • I shouldn’t worry if I were you. • I don’t care! • I don’t mind what you do? • It’s your decision. • I don’t mind. • Look, why don’t you relax? • It doesn’t matter. • Go ahead, do it. • If you like. • I wouldn’t mind. Why should I? • I know he’ll be angry, but I don’t care. • Who cares! • Who knows! • It makes no difference either way. • I’m easy (= I don’t mind, I have no preference). • As you like. • I couldn’t care less. • So what? • You can say whatever you like. • Do as you like.


End of sample content




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