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Book B4: Key speech-initiators
& Speech-unit Patterns

Key speech-initiators & Speech-unit Patterns

Key speech-initiators & Speech-unit Patterns
By Prof. Kev Nair

"Key Speech Initiators and Speech Unit Patterns, helps you master speech-initiators and speech-unit patterns quickly and easily."
The New Indian Express.

Please note: This book is not sold separately. It is available for sale only as part of Fluentzy: The English Fluency Encyclopedia.

Sample pages from this book

Key speech-initiators

Basic speech-initiators
We’re now going to take up a most important item of practice.

One reason why people lack fluency in English-speech is this: Their tongue and other organs of speech find it difficult to start saying idea units. Let me explain: If you want to say anything, you have to start your utterances. That is, you have to start speaking. The initial words in almost all idea units are simple words like ‘I’, ‘have’, ‘are’, etc. These simple words combine together in various ways, and these word combinations are the initial parts of most idea units. These combinations look simple, and it’s easy to start writing them. But note one thing: These combinations are not easy to say freely. Our tongues and other speech organs do not just yield to these initial word combinations easily. That’s why people find it difficult to start their idea units.

You see, a stretch of speech is a chain made up of several idea units. At the beginning of each idea unit, the speech-organs show reluctance to say the initial word combinations, and the flow of speech breaks up. The only way to overcome this difficulty is this: Get your organs of speech to become familiar with the initial word combinations. And the only way to do this is to practise — by uttering these initial word combinations ALOUD several times. All the common combinations are given below. These combinations start or initiate speech units, and so we can call them speech initiators.

Don’t shrug your shoulders and think that this practice is too elementary. No. This practice is not an elementary or non-essential practice. This is an essential practice. Of course, meaningwise, the word groups given below are all elementary. They’re all simple and straightforward and are made up of the most basic words in English — words that you learn when you first begin to learn English at school. But remember this: The aim in getting you to do the following drill is not to teach you the meaning of words. No. The aim is to train your organs of speech in uttering these word groups easily.

Mind you, though these word groups are all elementary, speakers who are not fluent normally stumble over them — no matter how highly educated they are. Yes, non-fluent speakers trip up when they utter these word groups, lose their balance of speech-delivery and falter. That’s why the drill you’re going to do with the speech initiators is extremely important. Once you start the practice, you’ll realize how stiff your organs of speech had been — while uttering these word groups. And once you complete the practice, you’ll realize how supple they’ve started becoming. So let’s go for it. Pick up each word combination and say it several times — ALOUD.

Group 1:

• I have. • I haven’t. • I had. • I hadn’t. • I have a. • I haven’t a. • I had a. • I hadn’t a. • I have got a. • I haven’t got a. • I have to. • I had to. • I have got to. • I have been. • I haven’t been. • I had been. • I hadn’t been. • I have been the. • I haven’t been the. • I had been the. • I hadn’t been the. • I have been able to. • I haven’t been able to. • I had been able to. • I hadn’t been able to.

Group 2:

• I don’t. • I didn’t. • I don’t have to. • I didn’t have to. • I don’t have an. • I didn’t have an.

Note: Repeat the exercise with the word groups in Group I and Group II by substituting for the word ‘I’ — (i) first ‘We’, (ii) then ‘They’, and (iii) then ‘You’. That is, utter the word group in these two groups first by using ‘We’ in place of ‘I’, then by using ‘They’ in place of ‘I’, and then by using ‘You’ in place of ‘I’.

Group 3:

• He has. • He hasn’t. • He had. • He hadn’t. • He has a. • He hasn’t a. • He had a. • He hadn’t a. • He has got a. • He hasn’t got a. • He has to. • He has got to. • He had to. • He has been. • He hasn’t been. • He had been. • He hadn’t been. • He has been the. • He hasn’t been the. • He had been the. • He hadn’t been the. • He has been able to. • He hasn’t been able to. • He had been able to. • He hadn’t been able to.

Group 4:

• He is. • He isn’t. • He is an. • He isn’t an. • He was. • He wasn’t. • He was a. • He wasn’t a. • He was the. • He wasn’t the. • He is to. • He isn’t to. • He was to. • He wasn’t to. • He is able to. • He isn’t able to. • He was able to. • He wasn’t able to. • He is going to. • He isn’t going to. • He was going to. • He wasn’t going to. • He is going to be a. • He isn’t going to be the. • He is going to be. • He isn’t going to be.

Group 5:

• He doesn’t. • He didn’t. • He doesn’t have to. • He didn’t have to. • He doesn’t have a. • He didn’t have the.

Note: Repeat the exercise with the word groups in Groups III, IV & V by substituting for the word ‘He’ — (i) first ‘She’, and (ii) then ‘It’.

Group 6:

• I am. • I am not. • I am a. • I am not a. • I was. • I wasn’t. • I was an. • I wasn’t the. • I am to. • I am not to. • I was to. • I was not to. • I am able to. • I am not able to. • I was able to. • I wasn’t able to. • I am going to. • I am not going to. • I was going to. • I wasn’t going to. • I am going to be an. • I am not going to be a. • I am going to be. • I am not going to be.

Group 7:

• We are. • We aren’t. • We are the. • We are not the. • We were. • We weren’t. • We were the. • We were not the. • We are to. • We are not to. • We were to. • We were not to. • We are able to. • We are not able to. • We were able to. • We weren’t able to. • We are going to. • We are not going to. • We were going to. • We weren’t going to. • We are going to be the. • We aren’t going to be the. • We are going to be. • We aren’t going to be.

Note: Repeat the exercise first by substituting the word ‘They’ for the word ‘We’. That is, say ‘They are’, ‘They aren’t’, ‘They are the’ etc. several times. Thereafter, repeat the exercise by substituting ‘You’ for ‘We’.

Group 8:

• I can. • I can’t. • I could. • I couldn’t. • I can’t have. • I could have. • I couldn’t have. • I can be. • I can’t be. • I can be the. • I can’t be the. • I can’t have been. • I could have been. • I couldn’t have been. • I can’t have been the. • I couldn’t have been the.

Group 9:

• I may. • I may not. • I might. • I might not. • I may have. • I may not have. • I may be. • I may not be. • I may have been. • I may not have been. • I may be the. • I may not be the. • I may have been the. • I may not have been the. • I may have been able to. • I may not have been able to.

Group 10:

• I must. • I mustn’t. • I must have. • I mustn’t have. • I must be. • I mustn’t be. • I must have been. • I mustn’t have been. • I must be the. • I mustn’t be the. • I must have been the. • I mustn’t have been the. • I must have been able to. • I mustn’t have been able to.

Group 11:

• I needn’t. • I needn’t have. • I needn’t be. • I needn’t have been. • I needn’t be the. • I needn’t have been the. • I needn’t have been able to.

Group 12:

• I ought to. • I oughtn’t to. • I ought to have. • I oughtn’t to have. • I ought to be. • I oughtn’t to be. • I ought to have been. • I oughtn’t to have been. • I ought to be the. • I oughtn’t to be the. • I ought to have been the. • I oughtn’t to have been the. • I ought to be able to. • I oughtn’t to be able to.

Group 13:

• I should. • I shouldn’t. • I should have. • I shouldn’t have. • I should be. • I shouldn’t be. • I should have been. • I shouldn’t have been. • I should be the. • I shouldn’t be the. • I should have been the. • I shouldn’t have been the. • I should be able to. • I shouldn’t be able to.

Group 14:

• I used to. • I didn’t use to. • I never used to.

Group 15:

• I had better. • I had better not.

Note: Repeat the exercise with the word groups in Groups 8 to 15 by substituting for the word ‘I’ — (i) first ‘He’ (ii) then ‘She’ (iii) then ‘It’ (iv) then ‘We’ (v) then ‘They’, and (vi) then ‘You’.

Group 16:

• I shall. • I shan’t. • I’ll. • I won’t. • I would. • I wouldn’t. • I shall have. • I shan’t have. • I’ll have. • I won’t have. • I’d have. • I wouldn’t have. • I shall be. • I shan’t be. • I’ll be. • I won’t be. • I’d be. • I wouldn’t be. • I shall be the. • I’ll be the. • I won’t be the. • I’d be the. • I wouldn’t be the. • I’ll have been. • I won’t have been. • I’d have been. • I wouldn’t have been. • I’ll be able to. • I won’t be able to. • I’d be able to. • I wouldn’t be able to.

Group 17:

• I should like to. • I shouldn’t like to. • I’d like to. • I wouldn’t like to. • I’d have liked to. • I wouldn’t have liked to.

Note: Repeat the exercise with the word groups in Groups 16 & 17 by using ‘We’ in place of ‘I’.

Group 18:

• He will. • He won’t. • He would. • He wouldn’t. • He’ll have. • He won’t have. • He’d have. • He wouldn’t have. • He’ll be. • He won’t be. • He’d be. • He wouldn’t be. • He’ll have been. • He won’t have been. • He’d have been. • He wouldn’t have been. • He’ll be able to. • He wouldn’t be able to. • He’d be able to. • He wouldn’t be able to.

Group 19:

• He’d like to. • He wouldn’t like to. • He’d have liked to.

Note: Repeat the exercise with the word groups in Groups 18 & 19 by substituting for ‘He’ — (i) first the word ‘She’, (ii) then ‘It’, (iii) then ‘They’, and (iv) then ‘You’.

Group 20:

• There is. • There is a. • There is no. • There are. • There are no. • There was. • There was a. • There was no. • There were. • There were no. • There isn’t. • There aren’t. • There wasn’t. • There weren’t. • There has been. • There hasn’t been. • There have been. • There haven’t been. • There had been. • There hadn’t been. • There has been no. • There have been no. • There had been no. • There’ll be. • There won’t be. • There’d be. • There wouldn’t be. • There’ll be no. • There’d be no. • There can be. • There can’t be. • There could be. • There couldn’t be. • There can be no. • There could be no. • There may be. • There may not be. • There might be. • There might not be. • There may be no. • There might be no. • There must be. • There mustn’t be. • There must be no. • There ought to be. • There oughtn’t to be. • There ought to be no. • There can’t have been. • There could have been. • There couldn’t have been. • There could have been no. • There may have been. • There may not have been. • There might have been. • There might not have been. • There may have been no. • There might have been no. • There must have been. • There mustn’t have been. • There must have been no. • There ought to have been. • There oughtn’t to have been. • There ought to have been no. • There is going to be. • There isn’t going to be. • There are going to be. • There aren’t going to be. • There was going to be. • There wasn’t going to be. • There were going to be. • There weren’t going to be. • There is going to be no. • There are going to be no. • There was going to be no. • There were going to be no. • There seems. • There appears. • There remains.

Note: Don’t worry about when to use each of these initiators or where. At present, pay attention only to uttering each word group ALOUD —several times.


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