Fluency in speaking about a wide range
One of the important things the books in this series have been trying to do is to improve your command over everyday
English vocabulary. You see, itís impossible to master
a word just by learning its meaning or by learning the rules
governing itís usage. These things are important, of course
?but these things would only help you get to Ďknow?that
word. But when youíre aiming to become fluent, itís
not enough that you know a word. What is needed is
that you should have complete mastery over it. You
should not only have a clear idea of its meaning and other
features, but also have the experience of actually using it
in various contexts. Yes, not in one context alone, but in
different contexts. Thatís why Iíve been giving you word-groups
by relating them to a particular communicative function, or
to an idea or a notion, or to a particular topic.
Now, this is the point that Iíd like you
to note carefully: The collections of word-groups that you
get under various topics (such as ĎBanking? ĎBusiness?or
ĎFood & Drink? help you in several ways. Let me stress
just three of the ways they help you: Firstly,
they help you associate the words in those word-groups to
the topic they come under. This sort of association would
increase your command over those words more effectively than
if you had gone through the same word-groups individually
(in isolation) without relating them to that topic. Secondly,
the topic-wise collections of word-groups bring into one
place the most useful word-groups and structures that have
to do with a particular topic. This helps you concentrate
on becoming fluent in speaking about that topic. And whatís
more important, this helps you increase your command over
a collection of words ?words that are related to one another
through a common topic. Thirdly, each topic-wise collection
of word-groups helps you look at the core words in the English
language from a new point of view, and this adds to your flexibility
in using those words ?to speak about any topic.
The third point needs some explanation. You
see, though I give a large collection of word-groups under
various topical headings, the words used are not of
a technical or rare nature. No. I only concentrate on giving
word-groups made up of frequently-occurring words ?
that is, words that occur frequently in everyday conversations
among educated speakers. These words make up the core vocabulary
of the English language. And as far as fluency development
is concerned, itís these words that are important. Thus, even
if the topic dealt with is ĎBanking? the words in the word-groups
you get are core words; even if the topic dealt with
is ĎBusiness? the words in the word-groups you get are core
words; even if the topic dealt with is ĎFood & Drinks?
the words in the word-groups you get are core words.
So what happens is this: Youíre made to use the core words
not under one topic alone, but under a number of topics. And
you come across the same words again and again under different
topics ?as part of newer and newer word-groups. And even
under the same topic, you come across most of the words several
times ?and not just once.
The result of all this is this: You get to
handle the core words again and again ?in context after context,
and situation after situation. And you donít come across them
in isolation; you come across them in the company of other
words that frequently occur with them. And these other words
are core words, too. This helps you relate each core word
to the other core words that usually come before it
and after it (in speech units) in various contexts.
In other words, you get to learn the inter-relationship among
words without any conscious effort ?and this is what helps
you really master the core vocabulary of a language.
In this Supplement, weíre going to take up
word-groups that have to do with seven topics that are of
everyday interest. These are:
2). Vehicle repairs and maintenance.
6). Entertainment & Leisure.
7). Sports & Games.
These are high-frequency subjects, and theyíre
of general importance any time you speak. But when they come
up during conversations, most people often find it difficult
to put their thoughts and ideas into words. Of course, Iím
not talking about the language required for a theoretical
or academic discussion of the various technical aspects of
these topics. No. Iím talking about everyday situations
when these topics come up. In day to day life, a large number
of situations come up again and again when youíll have to
say something or other about these seven topics. Yes, this
is so even if you donít drive a car, and even if you are not
going to get a car repaired, and even if you are not interested
in sports or games. That is, these are topics that everyone
would come across during everyday conversations ?topics
on which everyone would find it necessary to say something
or other quite frequently. Of course, the things you will
find it necessary to say are usually of a general nature,
and not of a technical nature, but most people find it difficult
even to say things of a general nature about these topics.
The main reason is this: They donít have
much experience in using the core words in English to express
ideas related to these topics. As far as you are concerned,
the practice material in this Supplement would put an end
to this difficulty. The practice material youíre going to
get now would give you ample training in handling the core
words to express ideas related to these topics. And the result
would be this: You not only become good at saying things related
to these topics, but also get to see the core words at work
in newer and newer contexts. And this will help you become
better at handling the core words ?and become more fluent.
We shall now take up the word-groups under
each of the topics. This is what you should do: Go through
all the word-groups under a topic quickly once. Complete all
the seven topics in this way once. Then come back to the first
topic, pick up each word-group, and start uttering it several
times ?ALOUD. Get your organs of speech to become familiar
with the sounds of these word-groups. Here we go:
?The police car overtook our car. ?On
hills, you must use low gears. ?I was in a traffic jam
for more than an hour. ?The car must be in neutral when
you start the engine. ?Get out of the way ?the car is
backing up. ?I hate driving along stony roads. ?Turn off
this road at the next corner on the left. ?Letís park the
car here. ?I got stuck in traffic for some time. ?Put
the gear lever in the neutral position, and start the car.
?The authorities will have to do something to reduce the
traffic jams in the city centre. ?The truck veered out
of control, overturned, and hit a lamp-post. ?The sign
said ĎNo Parking? ?This tyre is very worn ?you should
get it changed. ?There were skid marks on the road where
the accident happened. ?Pull up at the pedestrian crossing.
?Put the car in the garage, and lock the garage door. ?
Most cars have four forward gears and a reverse. ?Iím thinking
of learning to ride a motorbike. ?A car came in the opposite
direction, and the driver dipped his headlights. ?The car
kept hitting potholes and bumps. ?He was arrested on suspicion
of drunk driving. ?He drives very well, and heís very cautious,
too. ?He goes to work by car/on his motorbike. ?Whatís
the correct tyre pressure for your tyres? ?The car was
travelling very fast. ?The crash happened on a sharp bend.
?That car didnít have its headlights on. ?The car skidded
and hit a lamp post, and the side of the car crumpled. ?
If you use the choke when you start the car, you should
push it in before you move forward. Yes, push the choke
in when the engine is idling. ?A few speed-bumps will have
to be installed in that street. ?For a moment, I was blinded
by the lights of the oncoming car.
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?The driver pulled up in front of a shop.
?Slack off when you approach the junction. ?He got into
the car and fastened the seat belt. ?The tyres squealed
when he braked hard. ?Can you ride a motorbike? ?His car
drove into the back of mine. ?He crashed the car into a
tree and smashed it up. ?This is the second car heís smashed
up. ?He was involved in a motor accident. ?She swerved
to avoid another car. ?Is there a garage in this street?
?The car began to speed up. ?During the rush hour, the
traffic would be bumper to bumper. ?She went round the
building. ?He rides to work on a motorbike. ?The car was
in third gear. ?My tyre burst when I was driving along
a stony road. ?He released the hand brake, and the car
moved forward. ?The car hit a lamp-post. ?There was heavy
traffic on the roads. ?He got into the car, and wound the
window down. ?In a few minutes, he began to speed up. ?
He opened the door, got in and started the car. ?He pulled
into a petrol station. ?I saw the car turning the corner.
?The car park is behind the building. ?He rides his motorbike
to work. ?The driver got out of the bus. ?I was doing
60 kph, and a blue Maruti passed me at 90 kmph. ?He drives
to work by car. ?Thatís a dangerous stretch of road. ?
Letís go out for a drive. ?He got into the car and folded
the roof down. ?These parking spaces are reserved for employees.
?I donít want to go with him ?heís not a safe driver.
?He let the engine tick over for about 30 seconds before
the car moved forward. ?The car skidded on the road ?the
driver had pulled up too fast. ?Weíve nearly run out of
petrol. ?He pressed the accelerator hard. ?Is the hand
brake on or off? ?Put the car in gear and drive on. ?This
is a no-parking zone. ?Our car had a breakdown, and we
had to push it into a garage. ?He braked sharply to avoid
a car. ?He wound up the window, and locked the car door.
?He undid the seat belt, and got out of the car. ?Put
your car into neutral when you stop at traffic lights. ?
The car is now in bottom gear. ?Iíve got another puncture
in my front tyre. ?He turned down a street where there
was a ĎNo Entry?sign. ?Change into second gear when you
go up the hill. ?He took the handbrake off, and the car
moved forward. ?Why donít you roll the window down? ?The
authorities have been doing their best to ease traffic congestion
in the city. ?I thought he would pull up at the traffic
lights, but he drove straight on. ?We saw a restaurant
by the road, and pulled in. ?I think youíre a bit low on
petrol. ?Our car was travelling at a speed of 60 kilometres
per hour. ?Is this a parking place?